The Constitution – Article III, section 2, clause 1

Judicial Power

“The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States…”


“…and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority…”


“…to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls…”


“…to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction…”

Federal Party

“…to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party…”

Interstate Disputes

“…to Controversies between two or more States…”

Citizen-State Diversity and Diversity Clause

Altered by the Eleventh Amendment, ratified on February 7, 1795.

“…[between a State and Citizens of another State; –] between Citizens of different States; — between Citizens of the same State…[and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.]”

Land Grant Jurisdiction Clause

“…between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States…”